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Courses

Biology courses are designed to teach biological principles as well as develop skills that can be applied to a variety of situations. Coursework requires students to think critically and synthesize information, to find and extract information from continually expanding databases, to formulate hypotheses, to analyze and evaluate data and draw scientifically valid conclusions from that data, and to communicate clearly and succinctly both orally and in writing. Many of the department's students continue to develop their skills by undertaking undergraduate research in collaboration with faculty.

Incoming first-year students are encouraged to investigate the University's new integrated quantitative (IQ) science course, a year-long class team taught by 10 professors that combines material from the introductory courses in biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics and computer science. Students must apply by mid-July each summer for admission in the fall.

Students who plan to enroll in BIOL 199 may read additional descriptions about course topics.

Courses
BIOL 108 Environmental Biology
Units: 1
Fulfills General Education Requirement (FSNB)
Description
Basic ecological principles and selected topics in environmental science, including worldwide impact of growing human population, patterns of energy consumption, and issues of water quality, water management, land use, and biological resources. Application of the scientific method will be incorporated in laboratory component. Will not serve as basis of further work in science nor meet entrance requirements for any health profession. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.

BIOL 109 Introduction to Ecology
Units: 1
Fulfills General Education Requirement (FSNB)
Description
Introduction to causes and consequences of ecological patterns at all scales: individuals, species, communities, and ecosystems. Terrestrial, aquatic, and marine systems are studied, as well as theories and the mathematical and graphical models used to understand them. Some labs require work outside. Will not serve as basis for further work in science nor meet entrance requirements for any health profession. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week. Same as Environmental Studies 109.

BIOL 111 Marine Biology of the Chesapeake Bay
Units: 1
Fulfills General Education Requirement (FSNB)
Description
Introduction to the ecology and biological diversity of the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. Environmental issues facing the bay will be explored through direct data collection, observation, and hands-on activities. This is a service-learning course and students will join local 5th-grade classrooms to help teach elementary students about the bay. Will not serve as basis for further work in science nor meet entrance requirements for any health profession. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week. Same as Environmental Studies 111.

BIOL 120 Modern Concepts in Biology
Units: 1
Fulfills General Education Requirement (FSNB)
Description
Scientific reasoning as applied in biology. Different sections may address different topics, but each one will study the nature of evidence and how knowledge is gained in biology through diligent observation or controlled experimentation. Assumes completion of high school chemistry and biology. Designed for students not majoring in the sciences. Does not satisfy biology requirements for graduate school or the health professions. Repeatable for credit if topics differ. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.

BIOL 190 Integrated Science/Math/Computer Science 1 with Laboratory
Units: 1
Fulfills General Education Requirement (FSNB)
Description
One of two courses taught fall semester as part of Integrated Quantitative Science program. Will integrate topics from Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Math and Computer Science and will include instructors from all five disciplines. Each semester of the course will be organized around a guiding principle that integrates several concepts. Along with co-requisite, will include ten hours for lecture and lab combination.
Prerequisites
High school calculus. Co-requisite: Math 190. Acceptance to Intergrated Quantitative Science course.

BIOL 192 Science, Math and Research Training I
Units: 1
Fulfills General Education Requirement (FSNB)
Description
Year-long course provides an, interdisciplinary, integrated introduction to biology and chemistry, with an accompanying integrated lab. Based on the material in the first course of the major in each of these disciplines, this course will focus on current scientific problems facing today's world such as HIV/AIDS or antibiotic resistance. The course is team taught by two faculty members, one from each discipline. Teaching will be integrated so that links between concepts are readily apparent and students are stimulated to think beyond traditional science methodology. The laboratory will be comprised of hands-on and investigation based experiences using both experimental and computer simulation approaches. The SMART course is designed for students considering a major in either biology or chemistry and also meets requirements for students who go on to study medicine or other health sciences fields. To be taken in consecutive semesters in the first year and with an accompanying year-long calculus course. Completion of the full year of SMART (CHEM 192) will substitute for CHEM141 and BIOL 199. 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours per week.

BIOL 199 Introduction to Biological Thinking
Units: 1
Fulfills General Education Requirement (FSNB)
Description
An introduction to how biologists pose questions, design experiments, analyze data, evaluate evidence, and communicate scientific information. Individual sections will have different topics and formats, but all sections will involve intensive student-directed investigation and include a laboratory component. Required for prospective biology majors and biochemistry and molecular biology majors. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week. Same as ENVR 199.

BIOL 200 Integrated Biological Principles I
Units: 1
Description
First of two-part series on the fundamental principles of biology. Examines genetics, cellular and molecular biology, and physiology within the context of biological evolution. Builds upon the competencies and skills learned in BIOL 199. Serves as preparation for upper level biology courses and beyond. Intended for majors in biology and biochemistry and molecular biology. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
(BIOL 190 or BIOL 192 or BIOL 199 or CHEM 112) and [CHEM 141 or CHEM 191 or CHEM 192 (CHEM may be taken concurrently)]

BIOL 202 Integrated Biological Principles II
Units: 1
Description
Second of two-part series on the fundamental principles of biology. Examines organismal physiology and ecology within the context of biological evolution. Builds upon the competencies and skills learned in BIOL 199 and 200 Serves as preparation for upper level biology courses and beyond. Intended for majors in biology and biochemistry and molecular biology. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 200

BIOL 206 Cell Structure and Function SA
Units: 1.5
Description
Introduction to general aspects of animal cell structure and associated physiology. Overview of cell shape and form, and cell and tissue types, along with intracellular organelles. Investigates the function cell membranes in maintaining homeostasis. Investigates in more detail the cellular function of nerve, muscle, and blood cells, and signaling by endocrine and immune system cells. Taught at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland. Fall semester only.
Prerequisites
(BIOL190 or BIOL192 or BIOL199 or CHEM112) and (CHEM141 or CHEM191 or CHEM192)

BIOL 207 Ecology
Units: 1
Description
Examines forces that shape the patterns of species interactions, abundance and distribution. Three lecture and three laboratory hours a week plus overnight field trips.
Prerequisites
BIOL190 or BIOL192 or BIOL199 or CHEM112 or CHEM141 or CHEM191 or CHEM192 or ENVR 201

BIOL 216 Botany
Units: 1
Fulfills General Education Requirement (FSNB)
Description
Diversity, structure, growth, physiology, and reproduction of photosynthetic organisms. Three lecture and three laboratory hours a week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 190 or BIOL 192 or BIOL 199 or CHEM 112 or ENVR 201 or permission of instructor

BIOL 220 Human Physiology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
A study of the human nervous, sensory, skeletal muscle, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and reproductive systems. Emphasis will be placed on forging conceptual links between biology at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ levels and the function (and dysfunction) of the human body. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
(CHEM 141 or CHEM 191 or CHEM 192 and BIOL 200 or BIOL 206) and permission of instructor.

BIOL 225 Evolution
Units: 1
Description
Introduction to biological evolution, including history of field and mechanisms of evolution that result in biological diversification, speciation, extinction, and the fossil record. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
(BIOL 190 or BIOL 192 or BIOL 199 or CHEM 112) and (CHEM 141 or CHEM 191 or CHEM 192).

BIOL 229 Microbiology
Units: 1
Description
Microorganisms are everywhere and an integral part of our world. This course introduces a broad range of topics in the field, including microbial cell structure and function, microbial growth and nutrition, unique aspects of microbial metabolism, viruses, microbial ecology, and microbial pathogenesis. The contributions of microbes to the world, both positive and negative, will be highlighted throughout the course. Laboratory investigations will allow students to explore microbiological-based questions. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
(BIOL 190 or BIOL 192 or BIOL 199)

BIOL 303 Plant Morphology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Structure, life histories, and phylogeny of major divisions of algae, fungi, and terrestrial plants. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 or BIOL 206 or BIOL 207, or BIOL 216, or BIOL 225, or BIOL 229 or permission of instructor.

BIOL 304 Medical Botany
Units: 1
Description
Medically significant plants, the biologically active compounds that they make, and how plant-derived drugs and poisons modulate human biochemistry, cell biology, and/or physiology.
Prerequisites
BIOL 190, 192, or 199 and BIOL 202

BIOL 305 Plant Anatomy with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Microscopic structure of vascular plants with emphasis on function, development, and evolution. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 190 or BIOL 192 or BIOL 199 or BIOL 202 or CHEM 112 or permission of instructor.

BIOL 306 Systematic Botany with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Identification and classification of vascular plants; emphasis on local flora, principles of systematics. Two lecture and four laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 or BIOL 206 or BIOL 207 or BIOL 216 or BIOL 225, or BIOL 229 or permission of instructor.

BIOL 307 Advanced Cell and Molecular Biology
Units: 1
Description
Analysis of molecular mechanisms by which cells interact with each other and the environment. Topics include signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and molecular models of cancer and microbial pathogenesis. Three lecture hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 or BIOL 206

BIOL 308 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Comparative anatomy and biology of several systems of organs of representative vertebrates in an evolutionary context. Two lecture and four laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 190 or BIOL 192 or BIOL 199 or BIOL 202 or CHEM 112

BIOL 309 Invertebrate Zoology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Comprehensive study of systematics, morphology, physiology, development, behavior, and ecology of invertebrates, the most abundant animals on the planet. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week plus field trips.
Prerequisites
BIOL 190 or BIOL 199 or BIOL 192 or BIOL 202 or CHEM 112

BIOL 311 Microanatomy with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Microscopic structures and functions of vertebrate tissues and organs. Laboratory emphasizes quantitative light and electron microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
(BIOL 206 and BIOL 216) or BIOL 202

BIOL 312 Developmental Biology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Development of animals, concentrating on fertilization and early embryonic development. Emphasizes mechanisms of cell differentiation and pattern formation. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 206 or BIOL 202

BIOL 313 Microbial Pathogenesis with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Exploration of the general mechanisms used by pathogens to cause disease. Topics include entry into the host, attachment to and invasion of host cells, cell and tissue damage, and microbial elimination/dissemination, as well as the techniques used to study these processes. Students will examine these topics in detail in context of several specific pathogens to more thoroughly appreciate the clinical disease that results from infection. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 or BIOL 206 or BIOL 229

BIOL 314 Molecular Biology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Exploration of the molecular mechanism of genome maintenance, expression, and evolution in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mechanisms of gene regulation will be emphasized, using primary literature to introduce new discoveries in the field. Topics include transcription and translation regulation, genome editing, and epigenetics. The lab will focus on using modern molecular techniques to address novel questions. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 and CHEM 141

BIOL 315 Landscape Ecology
Units: 1
Description
(See Geography 315.)
Prerequisites
GEOG 250 or ENVR 201 or BIOL 202 or BIOL 207, or permission of instructor

BIOL 316 Biological Imaging with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Laboratory based course in the theory and practice of techniques used to study biological structures. Combines instruction in specimen preparation, light and electron microscopy, and digital image analysis. Will be useful to students who plan to do independent research in cell, molecular, or organismal biology. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 190 or BIOL 192 or BIOL 199 or BIOL 202 or CHEM 112

BIOL 317 Mechanochemical Cell Biology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Focuses on the chemical and physical nature of cellular function, and the approaches used to study cells. Topics include biophysical principles, kinetics, macromolecular self-assembly, and the impact of regulatory mechanisms on cellular properties. Laboratory component includes an active research project studying the machinery of cell division, including quantitative microscopy approaches. Three lecture hours and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
(BIOL 202 or BIOL 206) and (CHEM 141 or CHEM 191 or CHEM 192)

BIOL 320 Experimental Design and Biostatistics
Units: 1
Description
Introductory course in designing, analyzing, and interpreting biological experiments. This course is structured to develop students┬┐ understanding of when to apply different quantitative methods, how to implement those methods using statistical software, and how to effectively communicate the analyses. Topics include summary statistics, distributions, randomization, replication, parametric and nonparametric tests. Additional topics may include multivariate methods, randomization tests, and Bayesian statistics.
Prerequisites
[BIOL 190 or BIOL 192 or BIOL 199 and (BIOL 207 or BIOL 225)] OR BIOL 202

BIOL 321 Strategies of Sex and Death
Units: .5-1
Description
Exploration of life history theory, which explores how natural selection shapes an organism's ability to achieve reproductive success. The course will consider how extrinsic and intrinsic factors (e.g., mortality caused by environmental factors, trade-offs, constraints) affect survival and reproduction. Students will be introduced to "optimality thinking" through a variety of theoretical and empirical approaches. Adaptations in age and size at maturity, the number and size of offspring, reproductive lifespan, and aging will be considered.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202.

BIOL 322 Cancer Biology and Tumorigenesis with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Examination of the past, present, and future of cancer biology. Surveys the molecular/cellular mechanisms that drive cancer and tumor formation through analysis of primary literature and student-led discussions.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202

BIOL 324 Molecular Virology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Exploration of the molecular biology of viruses. Topics include virus entry, viral gene expression, genome replication, assembly, and exit. Each step of the viral life cycle will be illustrated through examples of well-studied viruses, accompanied by primary literature readings. Laboratory involves development of a virologist skill set and designing and carrying out self-directed experiments. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 or BIOL 206. CHEM 326 or CHEM 327 are recommended.

BIOL 325 Molecular Evolution with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Introduction to molecular evolution with focus on genome structure, mutation selection and random genetic drift at molecular level. Evolution by gene duplication, exon shuffling and transposition. Lab focuses on cloning and recombinant DNA techniques. Strong lab component, two lecture and four laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 190 or BIOL 192 or BIOL 199 or BIOL 202 or CHEM 112

BIOL 326 Biochemistry
Units: 1
Description
(See Chemistry 326.)
Prerequisites
CHEM 206.

BIOL 328 Vertebrate Zoology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Comprehensive survey of vertebrate classes emphasizing phylogenetic theory, natural history, behavior, and ecology. Two lecture and four laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 190 or BIOL 192 or BIOL 199 or BIOL 202 or CHEM 112

BIOL 331 Molecular Ecology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Examines how molecular genetic techniques are used to study ecological and evolutionary processes in natural populations. Relying heavily on the primary literature, explores methods for evaluating population genetic structure, studying the adaptation of organisms to changing environments, and assessing quantitative predictions from ecological and evolutionary theory. Applied topics covered include molecular identification, hybridization, conservation genetics, transgene escape, the evolution of invasive species, and environmental genomics. The laboratory will emphasize experimental design and training in molecular techniques commonly used in molecular ecology. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 or [BIOL 207 or BIOL 225]. BIOL 201 is recommended.

BIOL 332 Tropical Marine Biology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Introduction to marine biology and other oceanographic disciplines using tropical marine habitats as specific examples. Three lecture hours per week and laboratory portion composed of field trips and exercises including spring break field experience in Caribbean (extra fee required).
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 or BIOL 207 or BIOL 225.

BIOL 333 Microbial Ecology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Community dynamics play an important role in organismal interactions. Examines the role of microorganisms in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats, as well as animal-plant systems. The laboratory will emphasize molecular techniques used to study microorganisms in situ and includes independent research project. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202, or BIOL 206, or BIOL 207, or BIOL 216, or BIOL 225, or BIOL 229

BIOL 334 Oceanography with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Integrated introduction to biological, geological, chemical, and physical oceanography. Multidisciplinary approach to ocean processes. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week, plus field trips.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202, or BIOL 206, or BIOL 207, or BIOL 216, or BIOL 225, or BIOL 229

BIOL 335 Structural Biology
Units: 1
Description
Introduction to the study of molecular structures of macromolecules using techniques such as X-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, and electron microscopy. Covers mathematical theory behind X-ray and electron diffraction phenomena and computational modeling of macromolecules. Three lecture hours per week.
Prerequisites
(CHEM 326 or 327) and PHYS 132

BIOL 336 Eco-epidemiology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Explores various ways environmental heterogeneity influences disease risk in humans, with specific emphasis on diseases harbored by wildlife species and transmitted by arthropod vectors. Molecular, field-based, computational, and geospatial approaches to characterizing and studying infectious disease dynamics. Readings draw heavily from primary scientific literature. Development of research ideas and implementation of group investigations. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
[BIOL 206 and (BIOL 207 or BIOL 225)] or BIOL 202

BIOL 338 Comparative Animal Physiology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Introduction to major characteristics of animal function at level of whole organism and component structures and organ systems. Emphasis on physiological function and processes related to survival in natural environment. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 or BIOL 206

BIOL 339 Physiology of Marine Organisms
Units: 1
Description
Physiological adaptations, including osmoregulation, respiration, diving physiology, and temperature regulation of organisms to marine environments, such as estuaries, the open ocean, and deep sea. Three lecture hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202

BIOL 340 Introduction to Immunology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Overview of immunology. Current theories and their explanation of pertinent contemporary issues included. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 or BIOL 206

BIOL 341 Animal Physiological Ecology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Introduction to animal physiological adaptation to the natural environment. Emphasis will be on physiological responses of animals to both biotic and abiotic factors and interaction with ecology and population dynamics of species. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202

BIOL 343 Neurobiology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Broad course focusing on study of neurons and neuronal systems. Topics to be explored include the neuron and its mechanisms for the transmission of signals, neuronal organization, sensory perception, integration, behavioral output, development, and basic neurogenetics. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 or BIOL 206

BIOL 344 Behavioral Ecology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Introduction to analysis of behavior of organisms, including humans, by study of how behavior affects survival and reproduction. Behaviors studied include foraging, aggression, cooperation, and reproduction. Verbal, graphical, and mathematical models to describe and predict behavior are studied and tested. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week; may include overnight field trips.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202, BIOL 207 or BIOL 225

BIOL 345 Cellular Neurophysiology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
The study of how nerve cells generate electrical excitability and use changes in excitability to communicate information in the nervous system. The basic principles of how ion channels and receptors operate will be studied and applied to their physiological function in nerve cells including networks of nerve cells and nerve-muscle communication. The key principles of channel and receptor function will be determined by students in laboratory exercises using contemporary electrophysiological instrumentation. Advanced topics such as the modulation of channel and receptor function, disease-causing mutations, and the molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity will also be studied. The course culminates in student-led investigations of a special topic, designed and completed by research teams. Two lecture and four laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 or BIOL 206

BIOL 346 Medical Entomology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Introduces students to biology of medically important arthropods, life cycles of transmitted pathogens, disease symptoms and epidemiology. Discusses the economic and social impact of these arthropods and strategies for their control; covers unorthodox points of intersection between entomology and medical sciences, including psychiatry, surgery and forensic medicine.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 or BIOL 206

BIOL 350 Undergraduate Research
Units: 0.5
Description
Independent research conducted with faculty supervision. May be repeated eight times for credit.
Prerequisites
Permission of instructor.

BIOL 351 Special Topics
Units: .5-1
Description
Special course areas covered when sufficient interest exists. Considers subject matter not covered in other biology courses. Three lecture hours per week. Some topics will include three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 190 or BIOL 192 or BIOL 199 or CHEM 112 or BIOL 202

BIOL 352 Evolutionary Developmental Biology with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Study of how evolution occurs through inherited changes during the embryonic development of organisms. The genetic basis of animal diversity will be studied by examining conserved molecular, cellular, and developmental processes. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202

BIOL 354 Biological Basis of Neurodegenerative Diseases with Lab
Units: 1
Description
Examines the biological mechanisms that underlie human neurodegenerative diseases. Also examines the genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of diseases like Alzheimer, Huntington, and Parkinson diseases by discovering how normal biological processes fail and lead to neuronal death. Also examines the biological basis of potential cures. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 or BIOL 206

BIOL 370 Women in Science
Units: 1
Fulfills General Education Requirement (FSSA)
Description
Critical analysis of involvement of women in science, including the history of participation of women in science; trends and barriers to full participation in science, including real and perceived differences in the biology of the scientist; objectivity/subjectivity in science; and feminist analyses of science. Continuing dialogue on how science is done and impact that feminist scholarship has had on this dialogue. Class research project will be conducted. Three lecture hours per week.
Prerequisites
Students must have fulfilled their Fields of Study-Natural Science requirement or have permission from the instructor.

BIOL 380 Philosophical Issues in Evolutionary Biology
Units: 1
Description
Philosophical problems within evolutionary biology and its influence on society. Issues studied include how natural selection works, evolution and human behaviors, and the influence of evolutionary theory on our ethical and legal codes. Lecture/seminar format, with student presentations and term paper. Three lecture hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 or BIOL 207 or BIOL 225

BIOL 381 Advanced Topics in Ecology
Units: 1
Description
Discussion-based course exploring the development of ecological theories in scientific literature from the foundations of the discipline through contemporary research and cutting-edge approaches. Readings draw from contemporary and foundational scientific research articles; critical analysis and discussion of the methods, data, and ideas found in each paper. Culminates in the development of one or more synthetic projects such as a synthesis paper that approaches current and historical thinking on a foundational ecological theory, and or a team-developed educational lab module that could hypothetically be used to teach undergraduate ecology students. The specific topical content of this course will vary by semester.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202 or BIOL 207

BIOL 382 Conservation Biology
Units: 1
Description
Study of biological diversity (species, habitats, ecosystems) and efforts to conserve it. Specific topics may include ecological models of population regulation, coexistence, maximum sustainable harvest rates and minimum viable population size. Study of local, national and/or international policies for the conservation of biodiversity. Three lecture hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202.

BIOL 383 Tropical Biology and Conservation
Units: 1
Description
Introduction to principles of tropical biology and conservation, including historical and economic components. Three lecture hours per week.
Prerequisites
BIOL 190 or BIOL 192 or BIOL 199 or BIOL 202 or CHEM 112

BIOL 387 Biology Seminar
Units: .25
Description
Regular attendance in program seminars and written analysis of presentations. May be repeated for credit, normally taken in junior year. Meets one hour per week.
Prerequisites
Instructor approval

BIOL 388 Individual Internship
Units: .5
Description
Supervised independent work under field conditions. Designed to give student applied experience in biological specialty. No more than 1.5 units of internship in any one department and 3.5 units of internship overall may be counted toward required degree units.
Prerequisites
Biology, biochemistry and molecular biology, or environmental studies major at junior or senior rank and instructor approval.

BIOL 389 Independent Study
Units: .25-1
Description
An in-depth study of biological topics not included in other courses. Students work independently, but under the supervision of a faculty member. Must be approved by department chair and instructor.
Prerequisites
Permission of instructor.

BIOL 390 Advances in Biology
Units: .5
Description
Engages students with discoveries at the boundaries of traditional biology disciplines and examine the kinds of questions researchers ask about living systems. The course builds upon foundational concepts in introductory biology courses and studies research fields for which an interdisciplinary approach is needed to advance our understanding. No individual topic may be repeated for credit.
Prerequisites
BIOL 202

BIOL 391 Honors Seminar I
Units: .25
Description
Special topics for junior and senior students with emphasis on topics presented in the Biology Seminar Series. One lecture hour per week.
Prerequisites
Permission of instructor.

BIOL 392 Honors Seminar II
Units: .25
Description
Special topics for junior and senior honors candidates. One lecture hour per week.
Prerequisites
Permission of instructor.

BIOL 395 Honors Research
Units: 1
Description
Laboratory or field-centered independent study. May be taken twice for credit.
Prerequisites
Permission of instructor.

BIOL 406 Summer Undergraduate Research
Units: 0
Description
Documentation of the work of students who receive summer fellowships to conduct research [or produce a creative arts project] in the summer. The work must take place over a minimum of 8 weeks, the student must engage in the project full-time (at least 40 hours per week) during this period, and the student must be the recipient of a fellowship through the university. Graded S/U.
Prerequisites
Approval for summer Arts and Sciences fellowship by faculty mentor